Vol 2 Chapter 11: Long-Term CO2 Storage: Using Petroleum Industry Experience
Reid B. Grigg
Abstract: This study comprised a survey of Permian Basin reservoirs where CO2 is being injected for enhanced oil recovery, or where CO2 injection was seriously considered. The focus was the assessment of successes and problems in these projects. There is significant experience and knowledge in the oil and gas industry to separate, compress, transport, inject, and process the quantities of CO2 that are envisioned for CO2 storage. Improvements will occur as incentives, time and fluid volumes increase. In some cases, certain phenomena that had been noted during waterflood were not included in simulating CO2 processes—an omission that can prove, and has proven in some cases to be detrimental to the success of the project. When the reservoir is well understood, CO2 has performed as expected. Also, the thermodynamic phase behavior of CO2 must be honored in predictive models. High-pressure CO2 performs as expected: it mobilizes oil, dissolves into brine, and promotes dissolution of carbonates. Brine can become supersaturated with dissolved solids; when pressure drops as it advances through the reservoir, precipitants can form. However, the kinetics of dissolution and precipitation under many reservoir conditions requires further study. In the time frame wherein CO2 has been actively injected into geological formations, seals appear to have maintained their integrity and retained CO2. Monitoring and verification of CO2 flow in geological formations is critical to verification of storage, but additional research and monitoring demonstration are needed.
Carbon Dioxide Capture for Storage in Deep Geologic Formations – Results from the CO2 Capture
Project Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide with Monitoring and Verification - Volume 2
Edited by: Sally M. Benson, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
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